Legal conditions in agricultural land trade in Poland

Bożena Karwat-Woźniak, Agnieszka Wrzochalska and Sylwia Łaba
Institute of Agricultural and Food Economy – National Research Institute, ul. Swiętokrzyska 20, 00-002 Warsaw, Poland


Karwat-Woźniak, B., Wrzochalska, A. & Łaba, S. (2023). Legal conditions in agricultural land trade in Poland. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 29(Supplement 1), 21–28

Land is an indispensable resource in any human activity, and its area is limited and permanently located. For this reason, it is the duty of the state to protect agricultural land to ensure food security for citizens. For this purpose, there are e.g., legal solutions in agricultural real estate trading. Analyzing the rules for transferring rights to agricultural land, three main periods can be distinguished, which differed in the degree of their liberalization and the scope of unification of agricultural land trade between natural persons and with the land resource of the Agricultural Property Stock of the State Treasury. The main idea was to create regulations that treated family farms in a special way, favored the improvement of the area structure and the transfer of agricultural land to people who offered opportunities for effective farming, and prevented excessive concentration. Mechanisms and instruments for achieving the goals varied. However, they were generally associated with a reduction in the freedom to trade in agricultural land, also privately. Nevertheless, the transfer of rights to agricultural real estate took place in two separate segments (private and with treasury land). The differences persisted also after the entry into force on April 30, 2016 of the strict rules in agricultural land trading.

Keywords: agricultural land market; legal regulations; the act on shaping the agricultural system

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