Hypopharyngeal glands development of worker bees (Apis mellifera L.) during supplemental feeding with various types of sugar syrups

Svilen Lazarov1, Ivanka Zhelyazkova1, Petya Veleva2 and Maria Hashinova2
1 Trakia University, Department of Livestock – Non-Ruminant Animals and Special Industries, Faculty of Agriculture, 6000, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2 Trakia University, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, 6000, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract

Lazarov, S., Zhelyazkova, I., Veleva, P. & Hashinova, M. (2024). Hypopharyngeal glands development of worker bees (Apis mellifera L.) during supplemental feeding with various types of sugar syrups. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 30(2), 346–351

For the normal vital activity of bees, a complete diet is necessary, providing sufficient proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The hypopharyngeal and mandibular (pharyngeal and maxillary) glands of bees secrete the royal jelly to feed the larvae and the queen bee. In the present experiment, the effect of feeding of bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) during spring and autumn stimulating feeding with substitutes of carbohydrate food such as “Sugar syrup”, “Honey syrup”, “Inverted sugar syrup” and “Isosweet” on the development of hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees has been established. After wintering (before feeding), the percentage of worker bees with a second stage of development of the hypopharyngeal glands is the highest. After the end of feeding in the spring period, in the bee colonies that received a honey solution, 48% of the bees had the maximum fourth stage of development of the hypopharyngeal glands. During the autumn period (before the start of feeding), the percentage of worker bees with the first stage of hypopharyngeal gland development (54%) was the highest and 48% had the second stage. During the indicated period, but after feeding was completed, 60% of bees fed Apiinvert, 56% of bees fed sugar syrup 2:1, and 56% of those fed honey syrup had the fourth stage of hypopharyngeal gland development. For the four stages of development of the hypopharyngeal glands of the worker bees, statistically significant differences (at p < 0.05) have been established between the bee colonies fed with the different types of syrups and the control groups in the spring and autumn stimulating feeding.

Keywords: worker bees; stimulating feeding; sugar syrups
Abbreviations: Stage of Development of the Hypopharyngeal Glands (SHPG); Hypopharyngeal Glands (HPG)

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