Tenth Anniversary of the Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science

Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science was primared with the highest prize for scientific publications by Ministry of Education and Science in Bulgaria for 1997, 1999 and 2002.
From the beginning of 1995 the Agricultural Academy in Bulgaria is publishing Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science (BJAS) - the first agricultural scientific journal in Bulgaria for fundamental and applied researches, published entirely in English language, and one of the few such journals in Central Europe.
Bulgaria is an agricultural country with traditions and long standing experience in the development of agrarian science and production. BJAS, printing in English, in accordance with international standards, provides possibilities for Bulgarian agricultural science to enter adequately into the world's scientific field, to find its place in reviews, abstracts and electronic means for processing and transfer of scientific information.
Besides scientific articles provided in Bulgarian universities and research institutes, BJAS publishes also articles from Eastern Europe and other countries all over the world.
The Editorial board of the journal includes prominent scholars from United Kingdom, Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Germany, Czech Republic and Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science was born by the initiative of enthusiastic scientists, driven by the desire to promote Bulgarian agricultural science to the place it deserves in the space of international scientific literature. Science has always been a world concept. All national contributions flow into common science in the way rivers flow into the world ocean.
Bulgarian agrarian science has developed original plant cultivars and animal breeds, efficient method and technologies. It has important things to communicate and we have to provide it with the adequate tool to do so. And we will only be heard if we use a popular, widely spoken language. There is no doubt - today, English is the language of international communication and we have chosen it for the journal.
The journal was born at the beginning of democratic changes in Bulgaria. An association of scientific and research institutes, universities, professional organizations and separate scientists, sharing the idea, was established for its publishing.
A preparation started for a journal, named Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD). This name targeted the emphasis on new issues, relevant to agrarian science as well as filling a gap in world periodicals. On the other hand, a specialized journal would attract more foreign authors and become a forum for discussing problems of growing importance.
It may sound as a paradox, but the then administration of agrarian science and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry not only did not cooperate for the publication of the journal but expressed disagreement, did not perceive its importance and obstructed the implementation of the idea. One of the motives was that Prof. Garbuchev was about to publish a journal Bulgarian Agriculture. Prof. Todorov decided that it would not be appropriate to start the publication of two journals with equal coverage at the same time and had a meeting with Prof. Garbuchev to share his opinion. The compromise gave birth to the name of the new journal - Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science.
As with all starts, there were difficulties. We could feel the lack of inner assurance and interest among agrarian scientists to publish in a foreign language. Gradually, however, the interest to being published in BJAS expanded and the inflow of articles in the recent years overcame the capacity of a calendar year. Thus, in the first year of the journal establishment (1995), about 70 articles were submitted for publication, mainly from Bulgaria. In the years that followed, this number gradually expanded and now, by mid 2004, we have a count of about 1,392 articles. Of them, 1,198 were published and 194 (14% of total submitted) - rejected. The percentage of rejected articles has grown from zero in 1995 to 32% in 2003. Of the articles published, 130 (or 11%) were submitted by foreign authors from the USA, Norway, The Netherlands, Turkey, Great Britain, Russia, Japan, India, Egypt, Pakistan, Iraq, China and Spain, etc.
The average size of the articles has expanded from 4.6 in 1995 to 6.1 pages in 2003.
There is a growing interest to the materials published - authors receive letters from all over the world by researchers, interested in the scientific results published. A major interest was shown to the reports of four international conferences, published in the journal.
Presently, the journal is quoted in 35 foreign reference journals.
BJAS is distributed in over 40 world countries, both by literature exchange schedule and subscription. The web page, developed in 2003, played a special role for its recognition by making it accessible to scientists all over the world. In 3 years, it has been visited 3,620 times by readers, or our web page has been accessed 3.3 times a day.
BJAS was awarded three times by the Ministry of Education and Science Scientific Research Fund - in 1997, 1999 and 2000, for its contribution in reflecting the achievements of agricultural science in Bulgaria and abroad.
We admit, there are weaknesses, some of them related to the financial instability of agrarian science in Bulgaria at present. The presentation of articles could be improved; investigations justified with better reasoning; local scientific facts and innovations projected better by means of a competent discussion; most adequate mathematic methods used for presenting the results and proving their significance.
The journal has made its first steps and reached adolescence, it is becoming stronger and gaining due respect by virtue of the devoted efforts of its founders and supporters, active support of hundreds of authors, convinced in the importance and popularity of BJAS in the scientific world.
Let us wish it wise maturity so that it successfully spreads Bulgarian contribution to agrarian science and assists the growth and recognition of new generations of Bulgarian scientists.

Good luck!

Prof. Nikolay Todorov

Acad. Tsvetan Tsvetkov
Editor-in Chief of BJAS from 2001

The life of academician Tsvetkov has been filled with meaning and deeds to the objective of research advance into a specific area - cryobiology and lyophilization. Along these lines the lifetime activity of acad. Tsvetkov has been deeply meaningful, consistent and publicly motivated.
In 1968 he graduated with honours from the Technological University in St. Petersburgh. He received a Master of Technical Sciences for the brilliant scientific work included in his diploma paper and was offered a full-time post-graduate position to study at the same university. What followed were days and years of hard research to mastering the theoretical basis of a subject interrelated with large number of human activities - food technologies, medicine, space travel, dietology, etc.
In 1971 Tsvetkov defended successfully his thesis and got the title of Doctor of Technical Science. He was appointed as research scientist at the Refrigeration Technology Institute in Sofia. There he established (1973) and became head of the first Bulgarian Cryobiology and Lyophilization Laboratory. Quickly Tsvetkov managed to turn it into a modern laboratory for both consistent research into, and production of various bio-products with various applications. Years of laborious activity were dedicated to expanding the score of the laboratories research as well as creating connections with similar specialized laboratories and institutes abroad.
In 1973 Tsvetan Tsvetkov became Senior Research Associate, 2nd degree. Then, in 1979, following the successful defense of his Doctor of Science thesis he attained the rank of Senior Research Associate, 1st degree. In the same year he was appointed part-time professor at the Higher Institute of Food Industry in Plovdiv. Since 1987, Tsvetkov has been full-time professor at the same institute.
Prof. Tsvetkov was excellent at broadening the research areas of his team, and managed to integrate them with the worldwide network of specialized scientific centers. The Cryobiology and Lyophilization Institute commenced joint research work with the specialized laboratory of the US Red Cross organization, the International Cryogenics Institute in Paris, the US Association of Tissue Banks, the International Confederation of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, the Japanese Society of Low-temperature Medicine, and a number of scientific centers in the former USSR. For the organization of such a wide-range cooperation the unique credit goes to Prof. Tsvetkov. For this reason he was chosen as a member in all these organizations. A high international appreciation of this activity was his being elected Vice President of the Cryobiology and Lyophilization Commission at the International Cryogenics Institute in Paris. Since 1977 Prof. Tsvetkov has represented Bulgaria in the Cryobiology and Lyophilization International Association based in the USA. This is yet another recognition of the scientific and organizational activity of acad. Tsvetkov, for his significant contributions in the field of cryobiology and lyophilization.
The considerable role of acad. Tsvetkov in establishing the cooperation between our Cryobiology and Lyophilization Institute and acknowledged international scientific centers is evident in the estimate made by Prof. Dr. Harold Merriman, Program Director of the US Naval Medicine Research Institute in Washington: "The cooperation set up by Prof. Tsvetkov has provided opportunities for exchange of extremely useful information on the mechanism of low-temperature tolerance in plants, as well as on issues concerning oxygen exchange through transfused red blood cells and hemoglobin. We highly esteem the research contributions of Prof. Tsvetkov, and his experience in the production of bone and skin preparations for clinical application, used by the US Association of Tissue Banks."
This high appreciation on behalf of the great experts in the field of cryobiology and lyophilization is a proof of acad. Tsvetkov`s incontestable achievements at the institute he runs, both in the theoretical investigations and the production of biopreparations.
In 1989 Prof. Tsvetkov was elected correspondent-member, and in 1995 a full member (academician) at the Bulgarian Academy of Science (BAS). These acts of high recognition were preceded by years of hard, dedicated work in a particularly difficult research field.
The scientific research of acad. Tsvetkov has been done in the field of cryobiology and lyophilization, more precisely in fundamental cryobiology. His major findings have been documented in over 250 papers and studies. About 140 of them have been published in foreign scientific journals and publications of international organizations. One of the most highly credited US journals, Cryobiology, has published 35 of his works. This scientific production includes 11 monographs, 1 of which written in German and 2 - in Russian, 14 monographic books, a number of text books, reference books, reviews and leaflets.
Thanks to the research of acad. Tsvetkov and the activity of the institute he has been in charge of, Bulgaria has taken one of the leading position in the utilization of cryoconservation and lyophilization methods. In this sphere acad. Tsvetkov has founded a Bulgarian school and prepared specialists for expanding this field. He is also the founder and the head of the International Cryobiology and Lyophilization School. This School holds biennial workshops and has been approved as an international scientific and training forum.
Acad. Tsvetkov has rendered great services to the development of knowledge in the field of cryoconservation and sublimation drying. He is equally credited for dissemination of the knowledge and methods in this field. The 11 monographs he has published are valuable methodological manuals both for research, and for the high level production of bioproducts.
In the field of medicine, acad. Tsvetkov`s monographs on the subjects of cryobiology and blood are of particular value as methodology papers, tissue transplants, blood biopreparations, and bioproducts for medical practice. Rundowns of these methodology manuals have been published in a large number of specialized publications. Apart from the theoretical conclusions and the experimental material discussed in them, they offer precious operation methods in the related production activity.
Since 2001 acad. Tsvetkov became an Editor-in-Chief of Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science.
A considerable part of acad. Tsvetkov`s technologies and methods for efficient bioproducts for food, medical, and special purposes have been patented. Their originality and high effectiveness have attracted the interest of specialized companies and firms from abroad. On these grounds projects have been evolved for joint ventures.
Acad. Tsvetkov has been a long-term lecturer at the University of Food and Beverage Industry in Plovdiv. His rich specialized knowledge and teaching talents are at the core of the affection on behalf of students, graduates, and post-graduates. His activity as director of studies has resulted in the successful defending of 25 PhD theses and 25 graduation papers. He has also been in charge of specialization courses of a great number of specialists from home and abroad.
The fruitful academic teaching activity of acad. Tsvetkov has been recognized by the University awarding him the title of Doctor Honoris Causa.
Acad. Tsvetkov has actively participated in the international research areas. He is member of many international scientific organizations and centers. He has delivered more than 86 papers at international scientific congresses and symposia, 62 of which held at foreign scientific centers.
Since 2000 acad. Tsvetkov has been the President of the National Center for Agrarian Sciences. Bulgaria needs of well-developed agricultural science. This is one of the prerequisites for overcoming the crisis that our agricultural production has been into. This is also one of the key terms, for Bulgaria to preserve the production of specific products, in the process of joining the EU.
We are confident that acad. Tsvetkov has the strength to defend the interests of the national agricultural scientific system. Let us wish him health, fortitude and courage to surmount the hardships. Not only the agricultural, but the entire Bulgarian scientific community have been following with concern the efforts for preserving the agricultural scientific potential, and the available research and experimental base.

Prof. Nikolay Todorov
Founder and Editor-in-Chief of BJAS 1995 - 1998

Prof. Todorov was born in 1934, studied zootechnics at the Agricultural University in Sofia, graduated in 1957 and worked for a period of 40 years (1960 - 1999) at the Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology of the Faculty of Zootechnics, Agricultural University, Sofia (later transformed to Agrarian Faculty, Thracian University, town of Stara Zagora).
His long years of research work were totally devoted to metabolism and animal nutrition practices. He has over 200 scientific publications on the subject, including 51 abroad as well as over 190 special topic and popular science articles. His scientific contribution has been referenced over 1,200 times in Bulgarian scientific literature as well as 129 times in foreign journals.
He is the author of 43 books, personally and in co-authorship, including 4 published abroad, on animal nutrition and management, feed production, processing and rational feeding, feed production planning and organization. His books on nutrition of cattle and other farm animal species have largely affected animal husbandry in Bulgaria.
Prof. Todorov is well known as a good theoretician in animal nutrition, having developed (1988-1991) and implemented new modern evaluation systems of energy and protein nutrition values of ruminant feed. According to the new system, energy is measured by milk feed units (MFU) and growth feed units (GFU) and protein - as intestine digestible (IDP) and belly protein balance (BPB). He is also known for developing the first feeding rates for cattle, water buffalo, sheep and goat, based on the new energy units as well as indicators of protein nutritive value.
Prof. Todorov has been Vice President of the Thracian University and Dean of the Agricultural Faculty for two terms. In 1990, Prof. Todorov founded the Union of Zooengineers in Bulgaria and was its President until 1998. He has also been member of the Managing Council (1990 - 1998) and Vice President of the European Association of Animal Production for one term (1994 - 1997). Prof. Todorov has been on the editorial boards of a number of journals, such as: Livestock Production Science (1990-2000), Egyptian Journal of Dairy Science (1993), Egyptian Journal of Animal Science (1995), Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans (1998) and Trakia Journal of Science (2003). He is the founder, Editor-in-Chief and long-term member of the Editorial Board of the Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science (1995). He is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Feedstuffs and Nutrition Journal, published by the Union of Feedstuffs Manufacturers.
He has been coordinator and president of the International Symposium on Protein Metabolism in Ruminants (Stara Zagora - 1987) and member of the organizing committees of 6 scientific symposia, held abroad. Prof. Nikolay Todorov has repeatedly been invited as a lecturer and session chairman to international conferences and symposia. He has held courses on animal nutrition in Mongolia (1981), Cuba (1985) and Greece (1990 - 1999) and lectured in 18 different universities in the USA, Japan, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. He has been mentor of 14 PhD students (incl. 3 foreigners).
Prof. Nikolay Todorov has been awarded several prizes for scientific contribution by the Academy of Agricultural Science. He has been decorated with the Cyril and Methodius medal - II Degree (1984). In 2004, he was elected Professor Emeritus of the Thracian University.

Prof. Yanko Profirov
Editor-in-Chief of BJAS 1998 - 2001

Prof. Yanko Ivanov Profirov was born in 1938 in the town of Malko Turnovo. In 1961 he graduated from the Higher Veterinary Medical Institute in Sofia. In 1966 after the award of competition, he was entered in as regular post-graduate student on biochemistry in the Institute of Stock-Breading in Kostinbrod. He was granted a Doctor's degree in 1970 and in 1991 the scientific degree of a Doctor of agricultural sciences. He worked in the Institute of Stock-Breading in Kostinbrod as a research associate, senior research associate II rank and senior research associate I rank, from 1971 until 1995. He was chief of a Section on biochemistry and a head of the Institute of Stock-Breeding Sciences, Kostinbrod. From 1995 to 2000 he was a deputy-chairman and a major scientific secretary of the Agricultural Academy. He is a professor on biochemistry in the Veterinary Faculty of the Forestry Engineering University, Sofia, since 2000.
Prof. Profirov was studying for specialization in the laboratory on membrane transport of the Czech Academy of Sciences - Prague.
He was a member of many scientific council meetings, a member of MPC on stockbreeding and his secretary and MPC on Veterinary Medicine on the Supreme Attestation Commission (SAC). He was a member of the Presidium of SAC from 2001 to 2003.
He was a member of the Accreditation Council of the National Agency for Appraisal and Accreditation in the Council of Ministers, a chairman and a member of the technical and experts' council on agriculture in the Ministry of Education and Science, a member of the managing council of the National Centre for Agricultural sciences.
Prof. Profirov was participating in the editors' teams of many scientific journals: Editor-in-Chief of Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, a member and an Editor-in-Chief of "Animal Stock-Breeding Sciences", a member of the editor's team of "Ecology and Future" magazine.
He was a chairman of the scientific and publishing council of the Editor's Office of the scientific magazines of Agricultural Academy.
Prof. Profirov took part in the elaboration of over 30 scientific projects and was a project-leader of 20 of them. He was a scientific instructor of 3 post-graduate students and a lot of diploma projects students.
The scientific activity of Prof. Profirov is mainly in the area of digestion biochemistry and animals reproduction. He paid major attention to the composition structure and function of biological membranes in relation with the transport of foodstuff and the reproduction processes, as well as the biochemistry changes that occur during the crioconservation of sex gametes. He published over 130 scientific papers in Bulgarian and foreign magazines, like Int. J. Bioch., GB, J. of Repr. and Fert., Archives Anim. Nutr., Berlin, etc. His scientific papers are cited by lot of our and foreign authors. Over 40 of his scientific research projects were reported at international and national symposiums. Three of them were awarded the first award at different symposiums, which means the have been highly evaluated.