EU Reference Methods for Detection of Marine Biotoxins in Sea Food

Medical University “Prof. Dr. P. Stoyanov”, Varna, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Chemistry, BG-9000 Varna, Bulgaria


PETEVA, Zl., M. STANCHEVA and S. GEORGIEVA, 2016. EU reference methods for detection of marine biotoxins in sea food. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 22: 374–380

Marine biotoxins can be found in marine shells as mussles, rapana and scallops, and could cause different poisoning symptoms. Black Sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is the only one marine aquaculture produced nowadays in Bulgaria. Its safe production has an impact on the market as well on the human health.
This review discusses current analytical methods for those toxins that are legally regulated in Europe, namely domoic acid, saxitoxin, okadaic acid, yessotoxin, pectenotoxin and azaspiracids, and all their analogues and how are applied in Bulgaria.
Due to legislative changes that were implemented in 2011, most legally required methods are chromatographic. Saxitoxin and domoic acid are monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with fl uorescent and ultraviolet detection, respectively. All other toxins are monitored nowadays by means of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection.

Key words: marine biotoxins, sea food, detection methods, offi cial control
List of abbreviations: RDA – recommended daily allowance; PUFA – polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA – saturated fatty acids; CONTAM – Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain; EFSA – European Food Safety Authority; HABs – harmful algal blooms; TEFs – Toxicity equivalency factors; EU – European Union; PSP – Paralytic shellfi sh poisoning; STXs – saxitoxins; ASP – amnesic shellfi sh poison; DA – domoic acid; DSP – diarrhetic shellfi sh poisoning; OA – okadaic acid; DTXs – dinophysistoxins; YTXs – yessotoxins; PTXs – pectenotoxins; AZAs – azaspiracids; EC – European Commission; LC – liquid chromatography; MS/MS – tandem mass spectrometry; HPLC – high-performance liquid chromatography; UV – ultraviolet; FD – fl uorescent detection; NeoSTX – Neosaxitoxins; GTX – Gonyautoxin; dc – decarbamoyl; i.p. – Intraperitoneal; CE – capillary electrophoresis; NRL – National Reference Laboratory; SD – standart derivation; SM – shellfi sh meat; EURLMB – Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins; OCLs – Offi cial Control Laboratories; UPLC – Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography; MLTs – marine lipophilic toxins

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